Philippians - Pursuing Christ to Know Him

by Thomas W. Finley


Directions for steadfastness, unity, joy, reasonableness and peace (4:1-9)

1 Therefore, my brothers, whom I love and long for, my joy and crown, stand firm thus in the Lord, my beloved. 2 I entreat Euodia and I entreat Syntyche to agree in the Lord. 3 Yes, I ask you also, true companion, help these women, who have labored side by side with me in the gospel together with Clement and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life. 4 Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say, rejoice. 5 Let your reasonableness be known to everyone. The Lord is at hand; 6 do not be anxious about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. 7 And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. 8 Finally, brothers, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise, think about these things. 9 What you have learned and received and heard and seen in me — practice these things, and the God of peace will be with you.

Paul expresses his closeness in heart to these saints, calling them beloved and longing to see them. He calls them “my joy and crown.” These believers are a joy to Paul now, and an anticipated joy in the presence of Jesus at His coming. Another verse expresses this future desire also: “For what is our hope or joy or crown of boasting before our Lord Jesus at his coming? Is it not even you?” (1 Thess. 2:19). Paul viewed the believers at Thessalonica and at Philippi as his joyful work in the Lord, which would result in reward at the Judgment Seat of Christ.

Chapter Four begins with the word “therefore.” This means that his admonition to “stand firm thus in the Lord” has its basis on what has been said before. The Greek word for “thus” means “in this manner.” Here Paul is pointing back to the excellent way of pursuing Christ to know Him. Another Bible version makes this more apparent: “So then, in this way, my dearly beloved brothers, my joy and crown, stand firm in the Lord, dear friends” (HCSB). If his readers follow this pursuit of knowing Christ, then they will “stand firm in the Lord.”

To stand firm means not to falter or be defeated by things coming against us. In the case of the believers in Philippi, the evil workers (3:2) and those setting their minds on earthly things (3:18-19), as well as disunity (4:2-3) were threats to the stability of the believers’ walk. There is also mention of “standing firm” in 1:27, where the opposition from opponents of the gospel message was a threat. The single-minded pursuit of Christ to know Him intimately is the greatest secret to not being knocked off the path in the Christian race. No matter what happens to us, if we maintain this focus, we can have stability and victory. If we seek something else, like appreciation from others, a successful ministry, an overcoming church life, or a relatively trouble free human life, then we are subject to being knocked down in our race. May we pay attention to Paul’s words: “So then, in this way . . . stand firm in the Lord.” (HCSB)

4:2-3 – These two women of Philippi had been workers together with Paul for the advancement of the gospel. Most probably this took place when Paul was in Philippi previously (second and third missionary journeys; Acts 16:12-40; 20:1-6). We do not know fully the nature of their disagreement. It may have been related to how the gospel work was to be carried out. I have learned that strong personalities come out when the Lord’s work is being done. It is easy for such ones to think that their way is right. Conflict can occur when workers want to be recognized as “leaders” or when they imagine themselves as the one who is “the leader.” But, in the work of the Lord, we have only one Leader, Jesus Christ Himself (Matt. 23:10). All of us together must be submitted to Him as the Leader, and to one another in humility (Eph. 5:21; 1 Pet. 5:5).

Paul’s remedy for these sisters is for them “to mind the same thing in the Lord” (LITV). This translation is a literal translation, which I think captures the idea better than to “agree in the Lord.” The same Greek phrase is the first one used by Paul in 2:2. It may also mean to be of the same mind or have the same mindset. In Philippians 2:2 this phrase is modified by phrases which follow. A literal translation puts the whole thought of the phrase in 2:2 this way: “mind the same thing – having the same love – of one soul – minding the one thing” (2:2, YLT).

These ideas surely suggest that the charge in 4:2 involves something much deeper than normal human conflict resolution. It means much more than finding some common ground for agreement and some compromise on matters on which they differ. It is something that Paul says that the two sisters are to experience “in the Lord.” Paul is entreating the sisters that they should both pay attention to the same thing, or have the same mindset about something. What same thing are these two sisters to mind? It must be the “one thing” that Paul has been speaking about in Chapter Three. This one thing is also the secret noted in 4:1 that enables believers to “stand firm in the Lord.” The thing that must dominate our thinking and our intentions is the pursuit of Christ, to know Him intimately. If both of these sisters did this — seeking to know and experience Christ in their present situation of disharmony — then harmony would come in. The issue at hand is unity with fellow believers. These sisters need to be attuned to Christ and His way and attitude of living with others. See the comments on 2:2-4 for more details.

Paul enlists the help here of someone Paul terms as his “true companion” or “yokefellow” [a more literal translation]. This person is not identified and there have been different suggestions for his or her identity. The term “yokefellow” suggests a stronger identification with Paul in ministry than “fellow worker.” It may well be Luke[1]. The Clement noted here as a fellow worker is supposedly Clement of Rome, an early bishop in Rome. This identification is according to a church history written by Eusebius, perhaps around A. D. 320.

Paul is enlisting this “true companion” and Clement to help Euodia and Syntyche in seeking and knowing Christ in their relationship and fellowship with one another.

4:4 – “Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say, rejoice!” This charge is not disconnected from the previous verse. We can and should rejoice because our names are written in the book of life. Even in the midst of difficulties, like personal controversies (vs. 2-3), we should find rejoicing in Christ Himself and all that we possess in Him.

4:5 – Here is a command: “Let your reasonableness be known to everyone. The Lord is at hand.” The word translated “reasonableness” is also translated variously as forbearance, gentleness, or moderation. The Greek word is epieikes (Strong’s #1933). The word is used to describe a quality of Christ Himself (2 Cor. 10:1). This virtue is one that involves the treatment of others without a sense of strictness. A person exhibiting forbearance does not press others for what may be exactly and justly due. Instead, he exhibits reasonableness, gentleness and patience in dealing with others. He is even willing to suffer some wrong done to him without complaint in order to preserve peace. J. B. Lightfoot, a noted scholar and English bishop in the 1800s, writes that this word forbearance is “the opposite to a spirit of contention and self-seeking.”[2]

Paul wants all of us to have this virtue displayed towards everyone. It reflects the attitude of God toward us (Ps. 130:3-4). I believe the apostle here still has in mind the disagreement between Euodia and Syntyche as he writes this verse. There is the need for them to hear this command, which would help cure their contention.

Paul adds “the Lord is at hand.” Technically, in terms of the Greek, this could mean “near” in time (speaking of His imminent return) or “near” in space, always near and available to us. I favor an interpretation that means the Lord is “at hand” in terms of His coming again. All other NT uses of this clause point to the nearness of Christ’s return. This idea also reinforces the command that we should indeed allow our forbearance to be known to others. This is because when the Lord suddenly comes we will have to give an account to Him at His Judgment Seat. This realization should surely give us the incentive to treat others with forbearance. If we deal with others strictly, without mercy, then Christ may deal with us in the same way at the Judgment (Jas. 2:12-13). An interesting parallel to the thoughts of this verse is seen in James 5:8-9:

“You also be patient. Establish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord is at hand. Do not grumble against one another, brothers, so that you may not be judged; behold, the Judge is standing at the door.” (Jas. 5:8-9)

4:6-7 - Paul writes these verses to comfort and reassure the Philippian believers in the midst of all of their trials and pressures. These believers had opposition from the unbelievers (1:28), potential threats from the legalists (3:2), threats to a godly walk (3:18-19), and problems of unity in the church (4:2). They also knew of the constant challenge of discipleship, dying to self in order to gain the prize (3:8-11). In addition, Paul wrote (approximately five years earlier) that the churches in Macedonia had suffered “a severe test of affliction” and that these churches were marked by “extreme poverty” (2 Cor. 8:1-2).

For all causes of anxiety the apostle gives the unique remedy — trustful prayer to a hearing and caring God. He tells us that “in everything” — every circumstance — we should let our requests be known to our God. “Prayer” is the general word for all kinds of prayer. “Supplication” involves prayer about specific needs to God. Prayer requests are to be made along with thanksgiving. Such thanksgiving acknowledges God’s goodness and care in every situation (see 1 Peter 5:7). “Supplication with thanksgiving” probably does not mean to thank God in advance for His answer to our prayer, although there is nothing wrong with that. Rather, thankfulness should describe our approach to God. We are simply grateful to Him for Him being there in our lives.

Prayer is the most concrete expression of our dependence upon God. Therefore, we should pray “in everything.” Great men of God, like Hudson Taylor and George Müller, have testified that they prayed over the smallest details of their lives.[3] The following story is recorded about George Müller: “In the early days of his [Müller’s] love to Christ, visiting a friend, and seeing him mending a quill pen, he said: ‘Brother H___, do you pray to God when you mend your pen?’ The answer was: ‘It would be well to do so, but I cannot say that I do pray when mending my pen.’ Brother Müller replied: ‘I always do, and I mend my pen much better.’’’[4]

One time a man asked Hudson Taylor about Taylor’s prayer life. Taylor simply replied that the man might be surprised about Taylor’s habit of praying for the smallest of things. We can surely learn from these great giants of the faith in this matter of praying over the smallest things.

Hudson Taylor also said this about the connection between doing the Lord’s work and prayer: “You can work without praying, but it is a bad plan, but you cannot pray in earnest without working.”

Bringing matters to God in prayer and truly entrusting them to Him for His working and His will brings in peace. It is the very peace of God, something infused into us. We cannot fix or control many problems and situations. However, we can bring them to the One who has all power, all lovingkindness, and all wisdom. We can trust Him. We can rest in peace with Him in charge. Often the circumstances that give rise to anxiety are not resolved the moment the trustful prayer is over. The circumstances may continue for some time. So it is beyond our understanding how nothing might change outwardly, but peace is experienced inwardly. Anxiety is replaced by peace, simply through our trustful prayer – this is a mystery which surpasses all understanding!

Such peace guards (the Greek word means like a military guard) our hearts and keeps us from the damage of distressing and anxious thoughts. This takes place “in Christ Jesus.” It is in the reality of our spiritual union with Christ that peace is realized.

4:8 – The apostle is nearing the close of his letter and says “finally.” Here is a closing exhortation to the readers to think on certain character virtues. Such thinking will help the believer dispel the lesser and baser thoughts of man and inspire him to be in line with Christ’s character. Let us give a brief definition of each of these virtues.

True: That which is genuine, honest and reliable. This points to Christ (Jn. 14:6). Dwelling on Christ as the reliable and honest One helps us to live in accordance with this trait.

Honorable: That which is noble in character.

Just: That which is just and equitable. This is surely defined by God’s standards as to what is right.

Pure: Morally pure, again according to God’s standards.

Lovely: That which is beautiful and pleasing, drawing out the love or admiration of others toward it.

Commendable: Conduct in persons that is admired and well-spoken of by others.

Excellence: Virtue or moral excellence. (Note 2 Peter 1:3, 5)

Worthy of praise: Conduct worthy of praise by others because it is according to God.

The verse ends with “think about these things.” Considering and thinking about these virtues will impact a Christian’s walk.

4:9 – This verse begins (in the Greek) with “which things you also learned.” In other words, the very virtues noted in verse eight were ones that Paul said were taught in his ministry and lived in his life. Paul was not bragging here, but telling his readers honestly that his teaching exalted the very virtues of Christ. And, Christ was also honored or exalted in his life (1:20). As with prayer in verse six, peace is the result of this practice. But, here it is not the “peace of God,” but “the God of peace.” The more we walk in the ways of Christ, the more we experience the God of peace.

Thanksgiving for the gift from the Philippians (4:10-20)

10 I rejoiced in the Lord greatly that now at length you have revived your concern for me. You were indeed concerned for me, but you had no opportunity. 11 Not that I am speaking of being in need, for I have learned in whatever situation I am to be content. 12 I know how to be brought low, and I know how to abound. In any and every circumstance, I have learned the secret of facing plenty and hunger, abundance and need. 13 I can do all things through him who strengthens me. 14 Yet it was kind of you to share my trouble. 15 And you Philippians yourselves know that in the beginning of the gospel, when I left Macedonia, no church entered into partnership with me in giving and receiving, except you only. 16 Even in Thessalonica you sent me help for my needs once and again. 17 Not that I seek the gift, but I seek the fruit that increases to your credit 18 I have received full payment, and more. I am well supplied, having received from Epaphroditus the gifts you sent, a fragrant offering, a sacrifice acceptable and pleasing to God. 19 And my God will supply every need of yours according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus 20 To our God and Father be glory forever and ever. Amen.

4:10 – Paul rejoices at the recent gift received from Philippi through Epaphroditus (4:18). The saints in Philippi were concerned about Paul, but “had no opportunity” to share with him before this point in time. We do have some details, perhaps not all, of gifts given to Paul by the Philippians. On Paul’s second missionary journey he preached the gospel at Philippi and then went to Thessalonica (Acts 16:12-17:9). While in Thessalonica, the Philippian church sent a gift to Paul more than once (Phil. 4:15-16). It appears that when Paul later went to Corinth on the same journey, a gift was brought to him again from the Philippians (Acts 18:3-5; 2 Cor. 11:7-9).

Paul did visit Philippi again (twice) during his third missionary journey (Acts 20:1-6). It seems likely that the church there did support him again at that time. But, then there may have been a gap of perhaps a few years during which there was no gift given to the apostle from the assembly at Philippi. Yet, now, in this letter Paul greatly rejoices that concern for him has “blossomed again” (he uses a Greek word derived from the plant world). What circumstances caused a “lack of opportunity” in the apparent years of non-support is unknown. One may suppose that Paul is just being polite in saying the church had no opportunity for a long while. However, it is more likely that Epaphroditus, who brought the gift (4:18), gave Paul some information about the delay in the care for him by the church at Philippi. Now their partnership in the gospel has been wonderfully revived.

4:11-13 – Paul assures the Philippians he is not speaking from a position of want. The apostle states the reason: “I have learned in whatever situation I am to be content.” The idea here of contentment is contained in the Greek word autarkes (Strong’s #842), used here in the text. This idea of contentment was part of the Stoic philosophy among the Greeks of that day. The Greek word meant “self-sufficient,” being able to handle all circumstances by one’s own power. It meant being content with whatever life brought along. There is a huge difference, however, in Paul’s ability to handle all kinds of circumstances. He did so not through his own strength, but in Christ (v. 13).

Following on verse 11, which indicates that Paul has learned to be content in whatever situation he finds himself, Paul begins verse 12 with a general statement: “I know how to be brought low, and I know how to abound. In any and every circumstance . . .” Although Paul is writing in the context of the financial gift, it seems here that he is not limiting circumstances to material goods or food. He does go on, however, at the end of the verse, to apply his experience of contentment to food and material goods.

Paul had been brought low (or “humbled”) in many circumstances during his ministry, and in all of them he learned Christ as his strength (1 Cor. 4:13; 2 Cor. 4:7-9; 6:4-5; 11:23-29; 12:7-10). There were also times when Paul “abounded,” and this may include in scope both things material, and spiritual (2 Cor. 12:1-4; Phil. 4:16, 18).

For Paul, any positive or negative circumstance of life did not disrupt his contentment, or his sufficiency in Christ. He was a person who found in Christ all power to endure every situation in life and steadfastly maintain his pursuit of knowing Him. In difficulties we can learn to wait upon the Lord, and deepen our trust in Him. In prosperous times we can learn in humility and thankfulness that all good things come from God, not ourselves. Also, we can then offer all that we have back to Him for His use and His glory.

Negative circumstances can make a person’s heart bitter, or make his faith in God waver. Positive circumstances can potentially turn one’s heart away from the Lord to the pleasures of this life or the pride of life. So, in every circumstance of life we must seek the Lord, learn of Him, and draw strength from Him to be faithful to God. Paul here tells us that: “I can do all things through him who strengthens me.”

The clause “I have learned the secret” derives from a Greek verb which was used for the initiation rites into the pagan mystery cults. Paul’s “learning the secret” here refers to his learning to experience Christ as his strength and contentment in every circumstance of life.

Life Application

It seems that the most challenging things of human life are the various circumstances in which we find ourselves. Circumstances usually determine people’s level of contentment. In contrast, Paul tells us in verses 4:11-13 that he has learned to be content in whatever circumstance he is in. He illustrates the spectrum of personal circumstances when he uses terms like being “brought low” and abounding, or abundance and need. Do we let our circumstances affect our contentment? Or, like Paul, are we learning to be content regardless of the circumstance? Learning contentment is a process. And Paul tells us that the secret of this contentment is found in Christ Himself.

Christ empowered Paul to be content. The literal translation of 4:13 is “I have strength for all things in Christ the One strengthening me” (LITV). The phrase “in Christ” describes our vital union with Christ. When we are living in this vital union, experiencing Him, then His power enables us to do all that God calls us to do. We may have to endure difficult circumstances, but with Christ’s power we can do so while exalting Christ in our living.

Donnie Preslar, a godly pastor I know well, made this spiritual observation: “Contentment will come from a sense of our completeness in Christ.”[5] We can learn that Christ is really all we need. This contentment comes from Christ; it is found in Him. He is the resource. He is the power. “The reality of the vital union we have with the Lord Jesus Christ is the basis of our learning contentment.”[6] We may have no control over our circumstances, but we can control how we respond to them. Paul had learned to respond to them in Christ and thus in contentment. We humans tend to think that if we get what we desire then we will be content. However, as Donnie Preslar superbly explains: “Contentment is not the fulfillment of what we want but it is the realization of how much we already possess in Christ.”[7]

Contentment is surely a learning process. Paul learned it in his circumstances — high and low. We learn contentment in Christ, who is our sufficiency and strength. “In our identification with Him — our union with Him — we find the empowerment to learn contentment in any circumstance in life.”[8] So, let us decide to seek Him and know Him in all circumstances. It is all right for someone to try to better his circumstances if he can. But, if not, will we learn contentment in Christ?

Will you join me in sincerely praying this prayer, which we both need? “Dear Lord, we confess that we are too much affected by our circumstances in life. We experience mere human contentment or discontentment most of the time because of our circumstances. Lord Jesus, we want to learn something more of You instead. We desire to find Your strength to do all things that You call us to do in every circumstance. You surely are calling us to discover You as the source of our contentment. We want to learn that what we have in You makes us complete, without any lack. We want to learn this as the basis or our contentment. Thank You, Lord for hearing our prayer. We ask You to remind us of these things as we walk through the circumstances of life.”

4:14-16 – In spite of the fact that Paul did not speak from want, and that he could handle all circumstances, he tells the Philippians that their care for him is commendable. They have shared their material goods with him while he was experiencing trouble. This “trouble” must refer to his imprisonment. In verses 15 and 16, the apostle reviews the wonderful history of the Philippians’ partnership in the gospel with him.

4:17 – “Not that I seek the gift” — At no time was Paul seeking money from others in an attitude of selfish concerns. See 1Thessalonians 2:4-6. Although as an apostle he felt his work should be worthy of some wage or support (1 Cor. 9:3-14), he was always willing to forego such a “right” where it might hinder the gospel (1 Cor. 9:12-19). He often supported himself and others with him through his trade of making tents (Acts 18:3; 20:34-35; 1 Cor. 4:12). He did this also as an example, showing that believers should work hard and not be a burden to others (1 Thess. 2:9; 2 Thess. 3:6-9). He also worked to be an example to believers that we should work in order to help others materially (Acts 20:34-35). Yet, he obviously felt that support of his work in the spreading of the gospel was good.

Paul’s heart for the welfare of others let him view their financial support not as a “gain” for him, but as “fruit” for them. This attitude once again shows Paul’s selflessness in service (2:19-21). This fruit speaks especially of reward in the coming day of Christ. This thought reaches back to the prayer in the first chapter. Those who “approve what is excellent” — determining what things are of Christ — are preparing for approval in the day of Christ. These are “filled with the fruit of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ” (1:11). The same Greek word for “fruit” in 1:11 is also used in 4:17.

There is no doubt that Paul viewed the financial support of the Philippians as part of the “good work” (1:6) that had its source in Christ. Therefore, as the believers in Philippi participated in this good work they could expect their gift to be counted as a “fruit of righteousness” at the Judgment Seat of Christ. Through their gift Paul found great encouragement that the lives of the Philippian believers were doing well spiritually.

4:18 – Paul describes the gift in an overflowing description as meeting his needs in full. Epaphroditus is acknowledged as the faithful messenger from Philippi who brought the gift. Most significantly, the gift is described in OT terms as a sacrifice on the altar, which fills God’s senses with a soothing aroma (Lev. 1:9). This sacrifice is fully acceptable because it is derived from Christ Himself — it is work done out of Christ Himself. This makes it pleasing to God. Our actions, when done in union with Christ, out of His life and in His power, are pleasing to God. This is fruit borne from abiding in Christ (Jn. 15:4).

4:19 – The apostle boldly tells the Philippians that God will in turn supply their needs. This is not a promise that all believers can “claim” for material supply from God. It is a promise for the Philippians. They had shared their goods with the apostle for the gospel work, and he now tells them that God in turn will take care of their needs. Paul assured them that God would supply their needs in accordance with His riches in glory in Christ Jesus. Today, those who give material things to others in need, and do so through Christ, also provide “sacrifices” which are pleasing to God (Heb. 13:16). This verse is not one any believer can claim in order for his needs to be met. However, there are clear promises in the Word of God that assure us that God will meet our needs if we meet certain conditions. This is certainly true of Matthew 6:33.

4;20 - Paul concludes this section on the acknowledgement of the gift with praise! His heart is filled with awe of God’s working in the Philippian believers. Their gift, seen as a sacrifice well pleasing to God, and his certainty that God will generously respond to their needs, lifts Paul into praise! Such a God deserves to be praised and glorified forever.

Closing remarks (4:21-23)

21 Greet every saint in Christ Jesus. The brothers who are with me greet you. 22 All the saints greet you, especially those of Caesar’s household. 23 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit.

4:21 – Paul asks that every saint be greeted. He wants each one to know that he recognizes and cares for them all. Also, there are some brethren with Paul who join in greeting the saints in Philippi. These would be those close associates who are in some way involved directly with Paul in ministry. Under the comments for 2:20-21 are listed some names Paul mentioned in his other first imprisonment epistles.

4:22 – “All the saints” would be those besides the ones “with” Paul, meaning the other saints in Rome. He makes special note of those of Caesar’s household. What a glory to God that the gospel had reached right into the imperial residence of the most powerful earthly leader. Those of “Caesar’s household” does not necessarily mean those who were blood relatives of Nero. This term also included the slaves and other people who served in the residence. It seems more likely that these servants were the ones who had responded to the gospel message.

4:23 – This closing benediction is basically a prayer that the saints will experience the grace of God, His very presence, in their human spirits. The Spirit of Jesus Christ (1:19) is experienced in the regenerated human spirit (Jn. 3:6; 4:23; Rom. 8:16).

Seekers of Christ Seekers of Christ Seekers of Christ Seekers of Christ Seekers of Christ

And you will seek Me and find Me, when you search for Me with all your heart" (Jer. 29:13, NASB)

[1] In His commentary (Paul’s Letter to the Corinthians) Gordon Fee puts forth a case for the possibility of Luke as this true companion. This proposal is summarized as follows. Luke’s written record in Acts uses the pronoun “we,” as evident in Acts 16 while at Philippi. But then the use of “we” in the narrative does not appear again until Acts 20:1-6 when Paul returned to Philippi a few years later. Thus, Luke may have stayed at Philippi for some period of time. At the juncture of Acts 20:6, both Paul and Luke left Philippi. However, identifying the “yokefollow” as Luke would also have to make allowance for the fact that Luke was with Paul in the early part of his first imprisonment. It was then that Paul wrote to Colossae and to Philemon (Col. 4:14; Phlm. 1:24). Yet, Luke could have returned to Philippi before the epistle was written to the believers there. It seems that the epistle to Philippi was written late in Paul’s imprisonment. It may have been written after his letters to Colossae and to Philemon (2:24).

[2] J. B. Lightfoot, Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Philippians (London: Macmillan and Company, 1888), p. 160.

[3] Hudson Taylor (1832-1905) was used by God for probably the largest foreign missionary work of modern times, the evangelization of inland China. George Müller (1805-1898) was used of God in England to build and maintain a sizeable orphanage solely by prayer to God. He had over 10,000 recorded answers to his prayers. Later he traveled worldwide to share with Christians how to have a confident prayer life.

[4] Arthur T. Pierson, George Müller of Bristol, p. 373.

[5] Shared in a sermon on November 29, 2017.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.